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Preview and download the latest WageIndicator Publications from WageIndicator Foundation.

Estimating the Likelihood of Women Working in the Service Sector in Formal Enterprises: Evidence from Sub Saharan African Countries - February 2016

The paper uses individual data for 9,957 female employees (drawn from a total sample of 29,332 individuals) in formal enterprises from 16 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to analyse the likelihood of women in the service sector. A well-structured questionnaire was used in all the countries to collect the data required for the analysis. The data reveal that there is a significant higher presence of women (81.56 percent) working in services as compared to the manufacturing and agricultural sectors; indicating that the service sector is more favourable for women employment compared with men. This indicates that female employment not only in the service sector is a driver of growth, and thus high female employment rates indicate a country’s potential to grow more rapidly. More so, in many developing countries women’s employment is sometimes considered as a coping mechanism in response to economic shocks that hit the household.
The Full Paper in English

The Importance of Foreign Language Skills in the Labour Markets of Central and Eastern Europe: An assessment based on data from online job portals - January 2016

In a globalised world, knowledge of foreign languages is an important skill. Especially in Europe, with its 24 official languages and its countless regional and minority languages, foreign language skills are a key asset in the labour market. Earlier research shows that over half of the EU27 population is able to speak at least one foreign language, but there is substantial national variation. This study is devoted to a group of countries known as the Visegrad Four, which comprises the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Although the supply of foreign language skills in these countries appears to be welldocumented, less is known about the demand side. In this study, we therefore examine the demand for foreign language skills on the Visegrad labour markets, using information extracted from online job portals.
The Full Paper in English

Using online vacancies and web surveys to analyse the labour market: a methodological approach - January 2016

This paper discusses methodological issues arising from the use of online job vacancy data and voluntary web-based surveys to analyse the labour market. We highlight the advantages and possible disadvantages of using online data and suggest strategies for overcoming selected methodological issues. We underline the difficulties in adjusting for representativeness of online job vacancies, but nevertheless argue that this rich source of data should be exploited.
The Full Paper in English 

Hungary: The gap between the wages of men and women - January 2016

The phenomenon of the gap between men and women's earnings is one of the current management topics of today, and it is an issue that should be put on the agenda of many social partners for a variety of reasons. One reason is that the difference in pay between men and women (gender pay gap) in Hungary does not get better, but worse, according to the latest available data. 
Amazingly so, in EU comparison, in some aspects - like gender pay gap in public sector, in education, graduated employees - Hungarian women have the highest gender pay gap (at the expense of women). 
Full Report in Hungarian - Summary in English

Task implementation heterogeneity and wage dispersion - November 2015

Wage dispersion among observationally similar workers is still only partially unexplained by economists from both a theoretical and an empirical point of view. We found that the variation in task implementation in different occupations is related both to within-occupation wage dispersion and to cross-occupation wage levels: workers in high-wage occupations are less defined around a typical worker than those in other occupations.
The Full Report in English

Mobile Research Methods - October 2015

Among all the tools currently used, mobile devices, especially mobile phones, smartphones and tablets, are the most widespread, with their use becoming prevalent in everyday life within both developed and developing countries. This book focuses on the use of mobile devices in various research contexts, aiming to provide a detailed and updated knowledge on what is a comparatively new field of study.
The Full Report in English 

Violence against women at the workplace is a major problem, though the statistical evidence is not well developed for many countries. This report aims at gaining a better insight into the extent to which working women are facing violence at work. It focusses on women on sexual harassment and bullying at the workplace in the working age population (15-65 years of age).
The Full Report in English, French, Spanish 

Manual and Codebook of the WageIndicator Collective Agreements Database - September 2015

Download the Manual and Codebook

Inventory of Trade Union - Gender Pay Gap Policies and Activities in EU 29 countries - WITA GPG - September 2015

The equal rights and opportunities including the struggle for “equal pay for equal work” have been long time on the agenda of trade unions.
“Women have historically been paid less than men  for  doing  the  same  job.  Contrary  to  widespread  belief,  this  struggle  for  equal  pay  did not  start  in  the  1960s,  but  has  been  taken  up  by  women  workers  since  the  late  19th century....
The Full Report in English 

Women’s Frequently Asked Labour Rights Questions - September 2015

From 2012 to 2016, the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), the WageIndicator Foundation and the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies (AIAS) are running the Labour Rights for Women project with national trade union confederations and WageIndicator teams in twelve developing countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. In this report, we present an overview of the information provided to workers in the project countries and the extent to which they make use of it.
The Full Report in English

10 Gender Pay Gap Clauses in Collective Agreements - WITA GPG - August 2015

Collective bargaining is one of the most important trade union tools to reach fair pay. Paradoxically the economic crisis of 2008 enforced trade unions to bargain for equality and collective agreements served to  reduce  pay inequalities.
Despite  of  the  importance  of  collective  bargaining  to  deal  with inequalities, there are difficulties like “women  tend  to  be  less  involved  and  represented,  therefore their needs and specific pay issues are “routinely ignored”.
The Full Report in English

15 Years of WageIndicator - August 2015

R e s u l t s . That is what we can proudly present after 15 years of hard work. Some of the contributors to this WageIndicator Conference Reader have been part of our rollercoaster ride right from the beginning. As you will leaf through this WageIndicator Conference Reader, you will find that each and every contribution speaks of commitment. All pieced together convey a broad picture of maturity and freshness. The old stem still produces new offshoots. The core is alive! What is this core?
The Full Conference Reader in English

Skill mismatch among migrant workers: evidence from a large multi-country dataset - July 2015

This article unravels the migrants’ incidence of skill mismatch taking into consideration different migration flows. Mismatch is the situation in which workers have jobs for which lower skill levels are required compared to their education.  Dataset (from a large multi-country web survey) particularly suited to investigate differences in skill mismatch between native and migrant workers is used.
The Full Report in English

Self-identification of occupation in web surveys - requirements for search trees and look-up tables - June 2015

Survey Insights: Methods from the Field. Can self-identification of occupation be applied in web surveys by using a look-up table with coded occupational titles, in contrast to other survey modes where an open format question with office-coding has to be applied? This article is among the first to explore this approach, using a random sampled web survey (N=3,224) with a three-level search tree with 1,603 occupations and offering a text box at the bottom of each 3rd level list.
The Full Report in English 

Is the web a promising tool for data collection in developing countries? - May 2015

This article helps to fill that gap by comparing similar non-probability-based web surveys (WEB) and probability-based face-to-face (F2F) surveys both to each other and to the labor force. An analysis of WageIndicator data on work and wages derived from surveys held in 2009–2013 in 10 developing countries.
The Full Report and Summary in English

Wage Index, Sector Analysis of the Netherlands; Loonwijzer – Monsterboard Wage Index - March 2015

The Loonwijzer – Monsterboard Wage Index is to describe some of the key characteristics of the workforce in ten selected sectors of the Dutch labor market. Levels as well as annual changes in key characteristics are studied in six focus areas. Lastly, worldwide wages are compared on 4 occupational groups.
The Full Report in English

WICARE Project Reports - March 2015

A project to improve expertise concerning wages and working conditions in the social services sector in the European Union. For this purpose, it collected survey data in 24 EU member states by means of a mixed mode approach of web-surveys and printed questionnaires adapted for the purpose of this specific project.
The Full Reports and Summaries in English and National Languages.

Workers and labour market outcomes of informal jobs in formal enterprises in 9 sub-Saharan African countries - February 2015

How can an informal job in formal establishments be defined? Who has an informal job? What are the labour market outcomes? This article uses data of comparable face-to-face surveys in nine countries: Benin, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal and Togo. An index for job-based informality is developed, based on employment status and contribution and entitlement to social security.
The Abstract and Purchase link to the full report in English and French

WageIndex Analytical Report -India - February 2015

With substantial growth in some sectors like IT and ITES, automobiles, and pharmaceuticals; the effect is increasing productivity in several industries. Labour market segmentation is visible across sector, region, gender, caste, etc.

Comparing collective bargaining agreements for developing countries - January 2015

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to fill several knowledge gaps regarding the contents of collective agreements, using a new online database. The authors analyse 249 collective agreements from 11 countries.
Findings – The authors find that 98 per cent of the collective agreements include clauses on wages, but that only few agreements specify wage levels. 
The Full Report and Summary in English

A web survey analysis of subjective well-being - January 2015

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being (SWB) indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance.
Findings – The results shed light on the importance of certain job characteristics not only in determining job satisfaction, but also in other SWB domains.
The Full Report and Summary in English


The full report in English

Wages, Collective Bargaining and Recovery from the Crisis in the Netherlands - January 2015

Social partners accepted the re-placement of a voluntary ‘social minimum wage’ by a statutory minimum wage, introduced in 1969. There are good reasons to defend a wage-led strategy as a recovery option in the case of the Netherlands.
The Full Report and Summary in English

Bonus Payments in the Indian Formal Sector, 2008-2014 -January 2015

“Bonus Payments in the Indian Formal Sector” study attempts to identify the trends and pattern related to Executive Bonus Payment in Indian firms. The segment of executives covered in the study includes Managers, Supervisors, Senior Management, and Entry-level professionals.
The full report in English