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Preview and download the latest WageIndicator Publications from WageIndicator Foundation.

Wages in Context in the Garment Industry in Asia - April 2016 

This report is the result of a study undertaken for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Netherlands, on behalf of the Asian Living Wage Conference (ALWC) in Pakistan in 2016. The Asian Living Wage Conference (ALWC) aims to engage Asian textile-producing countries in the initiatives of EU and US brands and multi-stakeholder initiatives to implement living wages. The ALWC will highlight the need to link the supply chain initiatives of brands to the collective bargaining processes between local unions and employers (ACT/IndustriALL MoU is best practice). A good understanding of the countryspecific wage context is thereby of utmost importance. The Ministry has asked WageIndicator Foundation to prepare input for the conference, among others by specifying the cost of living in the garment industries in all countries concerned. The Ministry has asked the Foundation specifically: 
• to provide information about labour law, minimum wage setting and minimum wage levels pertaining to the garment industry in nine Asian countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam); 
• to include an overview of sources providing information about wages of garment workers in these countries, and provide information about these wage levels; 
• to give insight in the cost of living levels and related living wage levels in the garment industries; 
• to prepare an overview of the country-specific hurdles for realising living wages, such as prices/cost of living, purchasing policies of brands, employment contracts, based on interviews with experts.

Download the full report in English - or download a handout per country: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam

What do workers do? Measuring the intensity and market value of tasks in jobs - April 2016

Do occupations refer to the same work activities, as assumed in occupational classifications such as the International Standard Classification of Occupations from the International Labor Organisation (ILO)? Up to now, no large-scale empirical testing of this assumption has been conducted, whereas occupations are a core variable in socio-economic research. Using the task descriptions provided for all ISCO 4 digit occupations, the frequency of task implementation was tested using respondents in the multi-country, multilingual WageIndicator web survey on work and wages in 13 countries. The web survey targets individuals in the labour force. Depending on their self-selected occupation, the relevant task list was shown and respondents were asked to tick on a 5-point scale how often they performed each task. For 427 occupations (ISCO08 4 digits) in total 3,237 occupation- specific tasks were available. Between November 2013 and August 2015 33,678 respondents had completed the tasks questions for their respective occupations. The results show that task measurement is feasible because it can generate sufficient observations to allow for analysis for a range of detailed, 4-digit occupations. Moreover, given that the WageIndicator web survey also holds data on wages, the median and average hourly wages (in Euro) could be computed for each task separately, showing that the average wages of tasks performed on a daily or weekly basis ranged between 5 and 34 Euro. The data collection challenges future empirical testing of hypotheses concerning the variation in task frequencies and their related wage premiums within and across countries, across occupations’ skill levels, across firm sizes, across regions and alike.
Download full paper in English

Codebook of the WageIndicator Cost of Living Survey - April 2016

WageIndicator operates a Cost of Living Survey asking the prices of in total 380 items (see Section 2), relevant to identify a living wage. This survey is posted on all national WageIndicator websites and is in the national languages. In 2015, the Cost of Living Survey was offered in 46 languages and in 84 countries, with more countries and languages expected in 2016. The websites attract millions of visitors, because they publish urgently needed but usually not easy accessible information for the public at large. Through Search Engine Optimisation the WageIndicator Foundation undertakes large efforts to attract visitors, in 2015 resulting in more than 30 million unique visitors. The web visitors are invited to complete the survey, either for one item or for all. Apart from the survey questions about prices, the survey includes a question about the respondent’s province and city in order to specify for geographical variation in cost of living levels. Hence, the web survey is a multi-country, multilingual, continuous, volunteer web survey. The list of items is mostly similar across countries, but the food items include country-specific items, thereby reflecting national food preferences. See for an explanation of the data collection and the list of items, Guzi and Kahance (2014), Guzi (2015) and Guzi et al. (2015). See for the list of countries with a Cost of Living survey: http://www.wageindicator.org/main/salary/living-wage/wageindicator-cost-ofliving-survey).
Download the full Codebook in English

Manual and Codebook for WageIndicator's CBA Database - March 2016

In a globalised world comparative and up-to-date data on wages and wage setting institutions is needed to understand the global economy in relation to national labour markets and industrial relations systems. Collective bargaining is considered an important instrument in wage-setting processes. However, this assumption is not underpinned with rich empirical data, because very little is known about what exactly is agreed in these collective bargaining agreements. Social partners or governmental institutions in some countries maintain databases with collective agreement texts, but few of them code the text according to a predefined set of characteristics. One reason may be that such databases require prolonged efforts to collect, read and code collective agreements. Even if databases are maintained on a country basis, across countries these agreements will be coded differently and on different levels of detail; thus, cross-country comparisons are not possible. This lack of data is an obstacle to the exploration of the range of issues negotiated in collective agreements, as well as their impact on individual labour market outcomes. It challenges the need for a global collective agreement database. 
Download the full Codebook in English

WageIndicator Labour Law Database: A Comparative Tool for Understanding Labour Laws in 80 Countries - March 2016

An introduction to the ever growing worldwide database of Labour Law of the WageIndicator Foundation which functions as a comparative tool for understanding Labour Laws in 80 countries. The powerpoint presentation is freely available, and includes text spoken by Iftikhar Ahmad himself, the creator and manager of the worldwide database.
Download the PowerPoint Presentation in English

Netherlands: Gender Pay Gap country report (WITA GPG) - March 2016

This report belongs to the WITA GPG project (With innovative tools against gender pay gap). Tendencies in the Netherlands are: decreasing average Dutch GPG around EU average The GPG in the Netherlands was particularly high and higher than the EU average in the years of the economic crisis; in 2008-2011 it was higher or near to 18%. Since 2012 the Dutch GPG started to decrease slowly, although in 2012 the Dutch GPG was higher than the EU average. In 2013-2014 the Dutch GPG was already around the EU average (around 16%). 
Download the full report in English

Explanatory manual about the global Minimum Wage Database of WageIndicator - March 2016

In a globalized world, comparative and up-to-date data on wages and wage setting institutions is needed to understand the worldwide economy in relation to national labour markets, wage setting processes and industrial relations systems. Minimum wage setting is considered an important feature of a country’s wage-setting. Decision making bodies such as wage boards are designed for decision making, but their dissemination capacities are mostly not well developed. When information is lacking, it is hard for employers to comply with the minimum wage rates and for employees to check if they are paid accordingly. In the 2000s the Internet offered unmet possibilities for dissemination. WageIndicator stepped into this area, see http://www.wageindicator.org/main/salary/minimum-wage.
Download the full manual in English

Minimum Wage Comparison Asian countries - Minimum Wage Fixing - February 2016

For countries which have a minimum wage, the minimum wage fixing system differs according to objectives and criteria, machinery and procedures, coverage, and subsequent adjustment as well as the operation and enforcement of rules established. In many countries, a tripartite committee sets minimum wages or commission comprised of representatives from workers, employers, and the government, while in others they are set by executive decree or legislative actions. 
This report is a part of a series of reports, which will cover various aspects of minimum wage in Asian countries like, Official Representation of Minimum Wages, Minimum Wage Fixation, Legal Compliance and Minimum Wage Rate Comparison. For the comparative analysis of minimum wage representation in Asian countries, we have considered only those, which are under the Wage Indicator project1. These countries are: Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Vietnam. 
Download the full report in English

Spain: Gender Pay Gap (GPG) country report - February 2016

In the last years – starting from 2011 - the unadjusted gender pay gap in Spain used to be above the EU average. In 2013 it was already among the highest values with its 19,3%. The GPG in Spain deteriorated particularly strongly in the years of the economic crisis; from 2008 to 2012 the Spanish GPG increased by 3,2 percentage points. In the EU there were only two countries (Portugal and Italy) preceding Spain in this. (But we have to note that their GPG used to be originally much lower than the Spanish.) Following 2012 we see a minor improvement in 2013 and stagnation in 2014. According to the latest available figure (Eurostat) the Spanish unadjusted GPG in 2014 was 18,8%.
Download the full report in English

WageIndex Report India: Wages and working conditions in the financial sector. WageIndicator Foundation - February 2016

Some of the key findings are: India’s banking industry alone is expected to create approximately two million jobs throughout the next five to ten years; The median gross hourly wage in the financial sector is INR 300.23; Overall, 96% of respondents in this sector hold at least a Bachelor’s degree; Workers below 30 years of age earn on average INR 194 per hour; workers between the ages of 30-40 earn INR 335 per hour, and workers over 40 earn INR 507 per hour; Approximately 86% of survey respondents working in the financial sector were men; Men earn a gross hourly wage of INR 311.78, while a female receives only INR 256.61 per hour; The gender pay gap in the financial sector is about 18%. 
Download full report in English

WageIndex Report India: Wages and working conditions in the ICT sector. WageIndicator Foundation - February 2016

Some of the key findings are: The median gross hourly wage in the ICT sector is INR 346.42; Overall, 95% of respondents in this sector hold at least a 3-year Bachelor’s degree; Workers below 30 years of age earn on average INR 236 per hour; workers between the ages of 30-40 earn INR 450 per hour, and workers over 40 earn INR 695 per hour; Approximately 88% of survey respondents working in the ICT sector were men; Men earn a gross hourly wage of INR 365, while a female receives only INR 231 per hour; The gender pay gap in the ICT sector is about 37%. 
Download the full report in English

WageIndex Report India: Wages and working conditions in the manufacturing sector. WageIndicator Foundation - February 2016

Some of the key findings are: The median gross hourly wage in the manufacturing sector is INR 254.04; Overall, 93% of respondents in this sector hold at least a 3-year Bachelor’s degree; Workers below 30 years of age earn on average INR 131 per hour; workers between the ages of 30-40 earn INR 260 per hour, and workers over 40 earn INR 346 per hour; Approximately 90% of survey respondents working in the manufacturing sector were men; Men earn a gross hourly wage of INR 260, while a female receives only INR 195 per hour;The gender pay gap in the manufacturing sector is about 25%.
Download the full report in English

WageIndex Report India: Wages and working conditions in the financial sector. Monster India - February 2016

Monster India is pleased to present to you the 2015 edition of Monster Salary Index Report for BFSI Sector. After a great response to The Monster Employment Index (MEI) which is a very quoted and credible industry benchmark for hiring activity across sectors, we launched the Salary Index in April 2013, as another point of reference for the industry. We partnered with WageIndex Foundation, Netherlands and IIM Ahmedabad as our reliable partners on this journey.
Download the full report in English

WageIndex Report India: Wages and working conditions in the ICT sector. Monster India - February 2016

Monster India is pleased to present to you the 2015 edition of Monster Salary Index Report for the ICT Sector. After a great response to The Monster Employment Index (MEI) which is a very quoted and credible industry benchmark for hiring activity across sectors, we launched the Salary Index in April 2013, as another point of reference for the industry. We partnered with WageIndex Foundation, Netherlands and IIM Ahmedabad as our reliable partners on this journey.
Download the full report in English

WageIndex Report India: Wages and working conditions in the manufacturing sector. Monster India - February 2016

Monster India is pleased to present to you the 2015 edition of Monster Salary Index Report for Manufacturing Sector. After a great response to The Monster Employment Index (MEI) which is a very quoted and credible industry benchmark for hiring activity across sectors, we launched the Salary Index in April 2013, as another point of reference for the industry. We partnered with WageIndex Foundation, Netherlands and IIM Ahmedabad as our reliable partners on this journey.
Download the full report in English

Was verdienen Diplom-Kaufleute? Eine Analyse von Einkommensdaten auf Basis der WSI-Lohnspiegel-Datenbank - February 2016

The project "Lohnspiegel" did the data collection and analysis of income and working conditions of employees in Germany in the sector of "Diplom Kaufmann / women". The data is based on surveys from the beginning of 2011 to mid 2015. They found that the average gross monthly income of graduate merchants, excluding bonuses based on a 40 hour work-week is around € 4.851. Half of the graduated merchants earned less than € 4.705. 
Download the full Paper in German

Estimating the Likelihood of Women Working in the Service Sector in Formal Enterprises: Evidence from Sub Saharan African Countries - February 2016

The paper uses individual data for 9,957 female employees (drawn from a total sample of 29,332 individuals) in formal enterprises from 16 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries to analyse the likelihood of women in the service sector. A well-structured questionnaire was used in all the countries to collect the data required for the analysis. The data reveal that there is a significant higher presence of women (81.56 percent) working in services as compared to the manufacturing and agricultural sectors; indicating that the service sector is more favourable for women employment compared with men. This indicates that female employment not only in the service sector is a driver of growth, and thus high female employment rates indicate a country’s potential to grow more rapidly. More so, in many developing countries women’s employment is sometimes considered as a coping mechanism in response to economic shocks that hit the household.
The Full Paper in English

The Importance of Foreign Language Skills in the Labour Markets of Central and Eastern Europe: An assessment based on data from online job portals - January 2016

In a globalised world, knowledge of foreign languages is an important skill. Especially in Europe, with its 24 official languages and its countless regional and minority languages, foreign language skills are a key asset in the labour market. Earlier research shows that over half of the EU27 population is able to speak at least one foreign language, but there is substantial national variation. This study is devoted to a group of countries known as the Visegrad Four, which comprises the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia. Although the supply of foreign language skills in these countries appears to be welldocumented, less is known about the demand side. In this study, we therefore examine the demand for foreign language skills on the Visegrad labour markets, using information extracted from online job portals.
The Full Paper in English

Using online vacancies and web surveys to analyse the labour market: a methodological approach - January 2016

This paper discusses methodological issues arising from the use of online job vacancy data and voluntary web-based surveys to analyse the labour market. We highlight the advantages and possible disadvantages of using online data and suggest strategies for overcoming selected methodological issues. We underline the difficulties in adjusting for representativeness of online job vacancies, but nevertheless argue that this rich source of data should be exploited.
The Full Paper in English 

Hungary: The gap between the wages of men and women - January 2016

The phenomenon of the gap between men and women's earnings is one of the current management topics of today, and it is an issue that should be put on the agenda of many social partners for a variety of reasons. One reason is that the difference in pay between men and women (gender pay gap) in Hungary does not get better, but worse, according to the latest available data. 
Amazingly so, in EU comparison, in some aspects - like gender pay gap in public sector, in education, graduated employees - Hungarian women have the highest gender pay gap (at the expense of women). 
Full Report in Hungarian - Summary in English

Task implementation heterogeneity and wage dispersion - November 2015

Wage dispersion among observationally similar workers is still only partially unexplained by economists from both a theoretical and an empirical point of view. We found that the variation in task implementation in different occupations is related both to within-occupation wage dispersion and to cross-occupation wage levels: workers in high-wage occupations are less defined around a typical worker than those in other occupations.
The Full Report in English

Mobile Research Methods - October 2015

Among all the tools currently used, mobile devices, especially mobile phones, smartphones and tablets, are the most widespread, with their use becoming prevalent in everyday life within both developed and developing countries. This book focuses on the use of mobile devices in various research contexts, aiming to provide a detailed and updated knowledge on what is a comparatively new field of study.
The Full Report in English 

Violence against women at the workplace is a major problem, though the statistical evidence is not well developed for many countries. This report aims at gaining a better insight into the extent to which working women are facing violence at work. It focusses on women on sexual harassment and bullying at the workplace in the working age population (15-65 years of age).
The Full Report in English, French, Spanish 

Manual and Codebook of the WageIndicator Collective Agreements Database - September 2015

Download the Manual and Codebook

Inventory of Trade Union - Gender Pay Gap Policies and Activities in EU 29 countries - WITA GPG - September 2015

The equal rights and opportunities including the struggle for “equal pay for equal work” have been long time on the agenda of trade unions.
“Women have historically been paid less than men  for  doing  the  same  job.  Contrary  to  widespread  belief,  this  struggle  for  equal  pay  did not  start  in  the  1960s,  but  has  been  taken  up  by  women  workers  since  the  late  19th century....
The Full Report in English 

Women’s Frequently Asked Labour Rights Questions - September 2015

From 2012 to 2016, the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), the WageIndicator Foundation and the Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies (AIAS) are running the Labour Rights for Women project with national trade union confederations and WageIndicator teams in twelve developing countries in Africa, Latin America and Asia. In this report, we present an overview of the information provided to workers in the project countries and the extent to which they make use of it.
The Full Report in English

10 Gender Pay Gap Clauses in Collective Agreements - WITA GPG - August 2015

Collective bargaining is one of the most important trade union tools to reach fair pay. Paradoxically the economic crisis of 2008 enforced trade unions to bargain for equality and collective agreements served to  reduce  pay inequalities.
Despite  of  the  importance  of  collective  bargaining  to  deal  with inequalities, there are difficulties like “women  tend  to  be  less  involved  and  represented,  therefore their needs and specific pay issues are “routinely ignored”.
The Full Report in English

15 Years of WageIndicator - August 2015

R e s u l t s . That is what we can proudly present after 15 years of hard work. Some of the contributors to this WageIndicator Conference Reader have been part of our rollercoaster ride right from the beginning. As you will leaf through this WageIndicator Conference Reader, you will find that each and every contribution speaks of commitment. All pieced together convey a broad picture of maturity and freshness. The old stem still produces new offshoots. The core is alive! What is this core?
The Full Conference Reader in English

Skill mismatch among migrant workers: evidence from a large multi-country dataset - July 2015

This article unravels the migrants’ incidence of skill mismatch taking into consideration different migration flows. Mismatch is the situation in which workers have jobs for which lower skill levels are required compared to their education.  Dataset (from a large multi-country web survey) particularly suited to investigate differences in skill mismatch between native and migrant workers is used.
The Full Report in English

Self-identification of occupation in web surveys - requirements for search trees and look-up tables - June 2015

Survey Insights: Methods from the Field. Can self-identification of occupation be applied in web surveys by using a look-up table with coded occupational titles, in contrast to other survey modes where an open format question with office-coding has to be applied? This article is among the first to explore this approach, using a random sampled web survey (N=3,224) with a three-level search tree with 1,603 occupations and offering a text box at the bottom of each 3rd level list.
The Full Report in English 

Is the web a promising tool for data collection in developing countries? - May 2015

This article helps to fill that gap by comparing similar non-probability-based web surveys (WEB) and probability-based face-to-face (F2F) surveys both to each other and to the labor force. An analysis of WageIndicator data on work and wages derived from surveys held in 2009–2013 in 10 developing countries.
The Full Report and Summary in English

Wage Index, Sector Analysis of the Netherlands; Loonwijzer – Monsterboard Wage Index - March 2015

The Loonwijzer – Monsterboard Wage Index is to describe some of the key characteristics of the workforce in ten selected sectors of the Dutch labor market. Levels as well as annual changes in key characteristics are studied in six focus areas. Lastly, worldwide wages are compared on 4 occupational groups.
The Full Report in English

WICARE Project Reports - March 2015

A project to improve expertise concerning wages and working conditions in the social services sector in the European Union. For this purpose, it collected survey data in 24 EU member states by means of a mixed mode approach of web-surveys and printed questionnaires adapted for the purpose of this specific project.
The Full Reports and Summaries in English and National Languages.

Workers and labour market outcomes of informal jobs in formal enterprises in 9 sub-Saharan African countries - February 2015

How can an informal job in formal establishments be defined? Who has an informal job? What are the labour market outcomes? This article uses data of comparable face-to-face surveys in nine countries: Benin, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal and Togo. An index for job-based informality is developed, based on employment status and contribution and entitlement to social security.
The Abstract and Purchase link to the full report in English and French

WageIndex Analytical Report -India - February 2015

With substantial growth in some sectors like IT and ITES, automobiles, and pharmaceuticals; the effect is increasing productivity in several industries. Labour market segmentation is visible across sector, region, gender, caste, etc.

Comparing collective bargaining agreements for developing countries - January 2015

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to fill several knowledge gaps regarding the contents of collective agreements, using a new online database. The authors analyse 249 collective agreements from 11 countries.
Findings – The authors find that 98 per cent of the collective agreements include clauses on wages, but that only few agreements specify wage levels. 
The Full Report and Summary in English

A web survey analysis of subjective well-being - January 2015

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of work conditions and job characteristics with respect to three subjective well-being (SWB) indicators: life satisfaction, job satisfaction and satisfaction with work-life balance.
Findings – The results shed light on the importance of certain job characteristics not only in determining job satisfaction, but also in other SWB domains.
The Full Report and Summary in English


The full report in English

Wages, Collective Bargaining and Recovery from the Crisis in the Netherlands - January 2015

Social partners accepted the re-placement of a voluntary ‘social minimum wage’ by a statutory minimum wage, introduced in 1969. There are good reasons to defend a wage-led strategy as a recovery option in the case of the Netherlands.
The Full Report and Summary in English

Bonus Payments in the Indian Formal Sector, 2008-2014 -January 2015

“Bonus Payments in the Indian Formal Sector” study attempts to identify the trends and pattern related to Executive Bonus Payment in Indian firms. The segment of executives covered in the study includes Managers, Supervisors, Senior Management, and Entry-level professionals.
The full report in English